Part 2: Pawnees – Panis – Blacks – Negros: Slaves
The term "panis" in Quebec, was formerly concerning servants and/or slaves in Quebec, sold by Natives of Pawnee Nation to English people from USA, and then re-sold in Quebec and the Maritimes and Fur-Trade posts. The term "panis" was the pronunciation that French people had for Pawnees a first nation of North Carolina who often sold their captives to Englishmen after intertribal conflicts. This name was linguistically distorted by French peoples, and was also attributed to black slaves in Canada and in the USA. In this period, about 2797 slaves-servants were Natives and 897 were Blacks.
The following sources were essentially consulted from historical archives in Quebec, from the National Archives Library. The most viable source in this matter is of course: The Dictionary of slaves and their owners, by Marcel Trudel who is mentioning unions and christenings of both native and black slaves that were presented in the various parish registers ,also showing the very few interbreeding mixing, both among indigenous, blacks and whites.
A big problem was, and still is, since some Panis were adopted and / or purchased, without the parties citing the source of the individuals: black or indigenous?
The consulted sources, archives making these mentions:
-Microfilms of parishes 1
-Microfilms of census 2
-The Dictionary of slaves and their owners 3
-Dictionnaire généalogique des familles canadiennes depuis la fondation de la colonie jusqu’à nos jours. (Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian families since the founding of the colony until today) 4
-Dictionnaire généalogique des familles du Québec, des origines à 1730.(Genealogical Dictionary of Quebec families, origins to 1730) 5
1-Microfilms of parishes: Drouin Collection, Mormons Collection
2-Microfilms of census: Collection from National Archives of Quebec in Montreal
3-Marcel Trudel, Dictionnaire des esclaves et de leurs propriétaires (Le),
ISBN : 978-2-89045-833-8, [520 p], Editions, Hurtubise inc. New edition reviewed in 1994
4-Cyprien TANGUAY. Dictionnaire généalogique des familles canadiennes depuis la fondation de la colonie jusqu’à nos jours. Montréal, 1871-1890. 7 volumes. Éditions, Librairie Saint-Joseph, Cadieux & Derome, 1886, acquiered by National Archives of Quebec
5-René JETTÉ. Dictionnaire généalogique des familles du Québec, des origines à 1730. Montreal, Fr University of Montreal’s Press, 1983. , [1180 p.]